Virginia Higher Ed Faces Legislative Backlash

Virginia higher ed, and the University of Virginia in particular, are facing toughest General Assembly scrutiny in twenty years.

Virginia higher ed, and the University of Virginia in particular, are facing toughest General Assembly scrutiny in twenty years.

Frustration with Virginia’s higher education establishment boiled over during a press conference in the state Capitol building this morning as 15 senators and delegates from both political parties expressed their intention to curtail tuition hikes at public colleges and universities.

Legislators have introduced some 20 bills so far in the 2017 session addressing affordability and access at Virginia universities, and they expect more will be filed. A primary source of concern is how the state’s elite institutions are steering millions of dollars into financial aid to out-of-state students even as Virginians find the cost of attendance increasingly unaffordable.

Del. Tim Hugo, R-Centreville, a graduate of the College of William & Mary, decried the high percentage of out-of-state students at his alma mater. Referring tongue-in-cheek to William & Mary as “the College of New Jersey-Williamsburg campus,” he said, “We need more in-state students.”

The University of Virginia is spending $20 million to $30 million in scholarships for out-of-state students, said Del. Dave Albo, R-Springfield. He found that dispensation ironic given the fact that “for years we were told we needed out-of-state students to fund the schools.”

Another source of resentment was the accumulation of large financial reserves, particularly at the University of Virginia. UVa had cobbled together a $2.2 billion “strategic investment fund,” expected to generate $100 million a year in investment returns, even as the board of visitors raised tuition aggressively and lobbied for more state support.

The press conference followed the release of a poll released yesterday by Partners 4 Affordable Excellence @ EDU, a group created to fight runaway college tuition hikes (and a sponsor of this blog). That poll of registered Virginia voters found that a large majority overwhelmingly believe that the cost of college attendance is too high and support greater transparency of university budgets and decision-making.

Dr. James V. Koch, a former president of Old Dominion University and president of Partners 4 Affordable Excellence, opened the event with a review of data. Since 2000, he said, the Consumer Price Index had increased 35.2%. Over that same period the national Higher Ed Price Index had jumped 52.9%. In Virginia, the cost of in-state tuition and fees had shot up even faster, even as incomes have stagnated. The number of work-hours that it took a Virginian earning the median hourly wage to pay average tuition and fees for a four-year college increased from 227 in 2001-2002 to 438 this year.

Bills before the General Assembly would cap the percentage of out-of-state students at 25% at Virginia higher ed institutions, forbid colleges from using in-state tuition revenues to pay for financial aid, restrict the amount of out-of-state tuition that could be applied to financial aid, and limit tuition increases to the rate of inflation, among other measures.

University officials justify high enrollments of non-Virginians on the grounds that out-of-state students on average pay 160% of the tuition cost, in effect subsidizing Virginia residents. If lawmakers cut out-of-state enrollments, they will increase pressure on universities to jack up in-state tuition. Also, providing financial aid to some out-of-state students, they argue, is necessary to make attendance affordable for lower-income students and preserve socio-economic and racial diversity.

Del. Lionell Spruill, D-Chesapeake, was more concerned with helping poor, minority Virginia students. In Virginia, the percentage of students receiving Pell grants for low-income students is around 20%, the lowest rate in the nation, he said. The reason for the low participation, he explained, is that tuition, fees and other costs are so high in the Old Dominion that low-income students can’t afford to attend. Poor Virginian students should be first in line for student loans, he contended.

A similar argument was advanced by Del. Terry Kilgore, R-Gate City, who represents an district in far southwest Virginia. As unaffordable as costs are for a family in affluent, suburban Fairfax County, he said, they create an insurmountable barrier for many families in Appalachia.

While legislators at the press conference shared a common concern about the cost of Virginia higher ed, they indicated no agreement upon which bills to support. Indeed, the issue of financial aid may prove divisive. While Spruill and Kilgore focused on the need of their lower-income constituents, a disproportionate percentage of of whom rely upon financial aid, other lawmakers represented middle-class households who are tired of seeing some of their tuition money diverted to financial aid for others.

“The high tuition, high aid model is out of control,” said Sen. Bill DeSteph, R-Virginia Beach.

Albo described how as a young father years ago he had saved $20,000 toward the purchase of his dream car, a Porsche 911. When he found out about the Virginia 529 college savings plan, he decided to invest the money in the program to pay for his child’s tuition but was shocked that it would pay for no more than half. It galls him to think that families paying the full freight for their children are helping cover the cost of other students. When he hears from constituents, he said, “I have yet to see a letter written saying, ‘I want to pay more in tuition to help another kid go to school.”

Sen. Chap Peterson, D-Fairfax, described the tuition hikes as “untenable.” State universities have accumulated financial reserves triple the size of the state’s, far more than they can legitimately use. A vocal critic of UVa’s $2.2 billion strategic investment fund, he argued that any time an institution builds up a larger-than-needed cash surplus, the excess should go back to students and parents. “The purpose of a university,” he said, “is not to aggregate wealth.”

There was little mention of the General Assembly’s own contribution to the affordability crisis. A fiscal analysis presented to the State Council for Higher Education in Virginia (SCHEV) last month indicated that cuts to state aid to higher ed accounted for roughly half the increase in tuition in Virginia. (It accounts for less than one-fifth of the increase in total cost of attendance, however, if student fees, room, board and other expenses are included.)

DeSteph was unapologetic. When asked what blame the General Assembly might share, he retorted, “For every dollar we cut, they raise tuition two dollars!”

Participants in the press conference sounded one other common theme. Some of Virginia’s colleges and universities are operating like they are private institutions. The unanimous message this morning: They’re not.

“[Legislators] don’t own the colleges and universities. The boards of visitors don’t own the colleges and universities,” said Sen. Frank Wagner, R-Virginia Beach, and a candidate for governor. “The citizens of Virginia do.”

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33 responses to “Virginia Higher Ed Faces Legislative Backlash

  1. Why does nobody determine why college costs are so high? Faculty salaries are much higher than when I taught engineering at the University of Delaware. That is when the number of people applying for faculty positions were on the order of 300 per position. Have the higher salaries increased that number? Surely the supply exceeds the demand. The current facilities for student recreation are much more elaborate and plentiful than when I taught. Are we paying much for campus playgrounds? How much does that add to the cost? Let’s look at the causes of the high cost before we just pump more money into the schools.

    • Why are costs so high — that is indeed the question. Unfortunately, no one is digging deep enough. Faculty productivity is a key metric, I suspect. It’s not the pay as much as the cutback in courses taught. Administrative bloat is another factor. The luxury arms race — nicer dorms, better food, spiffier amenities — is yet another. Student enrichment programs (among the elite institutions at least). These are costs, and due to the prestige arms race, they climb ever higher. There is never an end in sight.

      • so do you FAVOR the State putting controls on the price of tuition?

        no vacillation now.. a simple yes or no… how about putting up a poll?

      • Jim Bacon asks:

        “Why are costs so high — that is indeed the question. Unfortunately, no one is digging deep enough. Faculty productivity is a key metric, I suspect. It’s not the pay as much as the cutback in courses taught. Administrative bloat is another factor?”

        Over time I’ll try to put some meat on those bones. And affirm N V’s comment below re: who is really doing the hard and critical work of teaching of college kids in Va.

        For now consider this:

        In the spring of 2011, UVa. President Sullivan wrote a memo to then Rector Dragas. Therein Pres. Sullivan bemoaned the emphasis that UVa. at that time was putting on teaching Freshman and Sophomore college courses.

        Sullivan argued that teaching such “introductory” 1st and 2nd year courses was not sufficiently challenging to first rate college professors. Hence it was hard to keep first rate professors at UVA if they were forced to teach 1st and 2nd year UVa. students, a task which depressed the intellectual vibrancy of UVa. as a first tier national and international University.

        Indeed Sullivan also argued that UVa. students were so superior and accomplished that few needed first and second year college courses that properly were and should be taught in less prestigious and more run of the mill colleges.

        This attitude on the part of President Sullivan is one result of the headlong rush at “elite” universities away from teaching students at all. The idea is that first class professors are to learned, accomplished, and good to teach teach students when their wisdom is a desperately needed to solve the problems of the world generally. This ‘Gem of an Attitude” has now evolved out to the idea that pay and advancement of professors, including life long tenure, is based not on their teaching but on their research. Hence teaching interferes with their success in their professor because it take time away from their research, whether it be in science or Shakespeare, history, or whatever.

        This results in today’s professors obsessive / compulsive research into nonsense done in a quixotic quest to impress fellow professors, and improve their status among one another as world class thinkers, movers and shakers.

        • re: why costs are high and what to do

          do we want govt to involve itself in this?

          and if we do – do we want it to just set caps on tuition

          OR

          do we want govt to dig into the finances of the Universities and dictate at that level?

        • Reed,

          Interesting points. I think Sullivan was brought in to do at UVA what she helped do at the University of Michigan, which is improve its standing as a research institution. One of the ways Michigan did that was by institutionally funded research (as opposed to externally sponsored research). Amazingly, Michigan self-funds research to the tune of $500M per year (per National Science Foundation data). This is money that likely comes mainly from tuition (and probably mostly from undergraduates) and to a lesser extent state funds. It may also be possible that Michigan does what UVA is doing with the Strategic Investment Fund which is likely repurposing surpluses from the medical center to the academic division.

          Anyway, in the case of Michigan, this is over $11K per student per year that goes to research rather than directly to education or lowering costs. For UVA, it is $5,600 per student per year for institutionally funded research for 2015 based on the National Science Foundation data. (https://ncsesdata.nsf.gov/profiles/site?method=report&fice=6968&id=h2 )

          I’m not saying research isn’t valuable, but I don’t think it should be done on the back of students.

          • Reed Fawell 3rd

            IZZO –

            Your comments never fail to inform and enlighten.

            I translate your comments immediately above to say that most of today’s modern elite universities, including UVa, are now built around a system that over charges their students , forcing ever more of them into debt and bankruptcy, in order to fund, promote and artificially pump up the research, status, and income of their administrators and faculty who now divert their student’s tuition and their state’s grants to the universities for their own benefit while they devote ever less time and resources of the university to the teaching of the kids whose monies and future are being stolen from them by those university administrators and faculty.

          • Reed Fawell 3rd

            I just received a letter from Teresa Sullivan that she will not seek another term as President of UVA. Perhaps on this US Presidential Inaugural Day, she discovered that her jig was up.

    • Hi Fred what engineering dept were you in?
      Penn State ChE grad here.

  2. When I graduated from VT in 1961 I got a job as an engineer in the private sector for $6000. Now the average is about $60,000 or ten time what it was in 1961.’Professors salaries were about $8,000 per year and the football coach made $12,000 and the president Dr. Newman made $15,000.
    If salaries of the head football coach had gone up 10 times then he would be making $100,000 rather than a million dollars. If the president’s salary had gone ten times then he would be making $150,000 not $600,000 plus.
    And professors salaries would be around $80,000 now which is much closer to actual ran either of the other two.
    So we see who is benefiting from the exploding tuition increases even as state support has dropped..

    • Of course, the ratio of President to senior manager salaries has grown hugely in private industry as well. Why? Is the President so much more valuable relative to those he manages? Or is it simply greed, and the absence of boards doing their job?

  3. Yanking the world of higher education back to reality is sorely needed.

    Most of our educators have lost all sight of their mission and their obligation, much less how best to achieve or fulfill either.

    As a result, much of the system that our educators have built since the 1960s is now corrupt. It’s designed and operated to serve, enhance, enrich and protect itself and those few who run and administer its corrupt operations, instead of serving students, parents, taxpayers, and society generally. And this system also cheats many of those who work at colleges and universities in positions without power. This includes many instructor who now do most of the teaching there.

    But at base the constituency that most truly counts in higher education is the students and their future: the education they get, its benefits and its costs. Anything that dilutes, detracts, and interferes with their chances for the best education they can take best advantage of at the highest cost benefit ratio should tossed aside.

    But students now confront mostly obstacles, not opportunity.

    This status quo now can no longer be tolerated. It is corrupt. It is bloated. It is horrible ineffective and unfair to students, their families, taxpayers, and society. It’s way overpriced. It achieves little, except for those running the systems that too often wastes students time, and traps them in unnecessary dept.

    Indeed today’s education often does students far more harm than good. It destroys their values, character, history and culture, and opportunity of learn while it bankrupts them, their families, and society generally, and falsely pretends to give their students a good and worthwhile education. And now too often our educational system wreaks this destruction at an ever increasing rate. It time to put an end to this travesty.

  4. interesting chart:

  5. Looks like UVA is paying attention!

    “UVa to enroll 100 Va. students and create grant for middle-income families

    The UVa Board of Visitors passed the resolution in a brief meeting at the Rotunda on Tuesday afternoon.

    The board also voted to create a new grant aimed at middle-income families who do not currently qualify for need-based aid. Those families could receive up to $2,000 in new grants funded in part by the university’s $2.3 billion Strategic Investment Fund.

    About $15 million in SIF payouts will pay for the initiatives over the next three years.

    The new grants will target families making between $75,000 and $125,000 each year, UVa Rector William H. Goodwin said.”

  6. I keep hearing that U.Va., W&M, and JMU are the only institutions affected by Albo’s 75% cap.

    The 2015-16 freshman class at VPI was composed of 4,268 in-state students and 2,097 out-of-state students. That comes out to 32.9% out-of-state students. Here is the link:

    http://research.schev.edu/iprofile.asp?UID=233921

    Most years, VT has had more than 25% out-of-state freshmen in the past decade. When I consulted in higher ed, VT was usually at 28-30% out-of-state undergrad.

    But again, this bill will really harm William & Mary. I don’t believe the school could go to a 75% in-state cap without significantly harming the institution. The legislators may wish to punish U.Va., but the scalp will end up being William and Mary.

  7. Ok here are a few things to start this off:

    Senator Spruill stated he was just a telephone man and although on the delegate/house health committee at the time (before moving to Senator), he couldn’t help me with health care issues in this state, trying to get things for us regular folks/voters/taxpayers. I had mentioned about lower income people, minorities. Couldn’t do anything and was offended I didn’t come to him with flowers and all nice, asking about issues, things he had gotten accused of in papers and were they right or wrong. So it boggles the mind to think that he can talk on education when he won’t listen to or entertain any one but his syncophants and lobbyists. He told me the lobbyists educate them. Maybe listen to ideas from taxpayers might help?

    ODU actually does more to help minority students than NSU or any one in the area. ODU has a better graduation rate for minorities than NSU. While its great for the big schools like UVA and GMU, having ODU and other smaller schools who don’t have that $2 billion in a kitty hurts them. What needs help is to get the big league schools to use their kitties and give it to smaller schools: VCU, ODU, etc. who could use it.

    What they need to do is to put the elite in one area and state schools like ODU in another. ODU does not have the resources these big elite ivy schools do. They are one of the few who get the shaft in budgets, yet they are the ones who actually are trying to push kids in learning and trying to graduate on time. Maybe they aren’t all big time docs and lawyers, but they are trying to turn out people who wouldn’t be getting a chance otherwise into middle class earners. The ones Virginia and America need.

    Speaking of which, an ODU graduate got into Harvard Med and is doing their residency at Duke or the surrounding area. ODU does a lot with military grads and part timers.

    Don’t wreck smaller schools because of runaway issues that should have been conquered when the legislators listened to the ivy’s and the $$$$.

  8. I try to understand if this kind of issue has parallels to other similar things.

    Clearly – people are advocating that Govt intervene in an issues involving prices and control of prices…

    this is in a blog when the head blogmeister claims to be Libertarian and urges the govt to let the free market work – whether it is for taxis and uber or health care, and a few other things.

    So can we find parallels where the govt does intervene in prices?

    certainly they do with Dominion’s monopoly

    but would we, for instance, want Va to tell K-12 schools that they cannot spend more than X dollars per student ?

    How about if the govt told Transurban that they could not congestion price tolls?

    NOW – to be fair – and honest – the Govt DOES involve itself in Medicare where it essentially controls prices by what it will reimburse. Providers can charge whatever they want but the govt is only going to pay what it decides and if there is a difference the consumer may end up with the balance.

    and NOW the Govt has just passed a regulation that says that they will not give student loans for courses and programs that do not lead to a job whose income is sufficient to pay back the loan – and while that doesn’t directly control prices – it WILL affect those who would buy tuition – with a govt loan.

    so how about a short POLL here?

    How many commenters think Virginia should control the price of tuition?

    simple yes or no….

  9. Can you please add this to the post?

    Delegate Hugo called William and Mary the “College of New Jersey, Williamsburg campus.”

    Fact: William & Mary’s class of 2020 has 1507 students. 62 were from New Jersey:

    https://www.wm.edu/admission/undergraduateadmission/facts-figures/class-profile/index.php

    Hugo also called U.Va. the College of Pennsylvania, Charlottesville campus.

    Fact:

    U.Va.’s class of 2020 had 3720 students, 91 of whom were from Pennsylvania.

    http://digital.uvamagazine.org/articles/2020-insight/

    Seems important to contextualize the Delegate’s statements, doesn’t it?

  10. A few things.

    First, a $6,000 job in 1961is actually about $47,600in today’s dollars after adjusted for inflation. To say that salaries are now 10 times greater than in 1961 is simply incorrect.

    Second, I get awfully tired of hearing the refrain that things were just ducky until the 1960s when liberals ruined the culture of college. What moral and cultural sacred cows are being referred to? Crew cuts? Segregation? Actually, the world has changed one hell of a lot since the 1960s and colleges have adjusted to train students for emerging new jobs. There’s less point in training them for old-style manufacturing jobs since those have been automated or moved overseas.

    Third, again, we hear that top Virginia public schools such as UVa and W&M are stunningly bad examples of academic and administrative hubris run amok. UVa is actually a tremendous bargain and a great school as well. I speak as a UVa parent — ditto Mary Washington.

    I hope this new sponsorship brings more interesting issues to the fore instead of being a sounding board for how great everything was in 1958 until the lefties polluted minds and morality. If that’s what it becomes, I won’t bother reading it.

    • I think Peter has an argument with some merit.. if you look at the COST of tuition over 20-30 years – is it really in excess of inflation? Did the Universities try “too hard” to keep it in check earlier – artificially and now they can no longer and have to catch up on years of not increasing it when they should have?

      as per our contemporary politics on a lot of things – the complaints are pretty clear and explicit as well as numerous but what they actually support doing is less clear and some irony as many express the idea that govt should stay out of these institutions – at least the Feds for sure, but now they seem to be saying the govt should intervene, set rules about the cost of tuition, etc… but it’s pretty vague what they actually want the state to actually do? Do they want the govt to set limits on tuition?

      Do folks commenting here – want the State to put inflation caps on tuition?

      yes or no?

      why didn’t the Partners for Affordable Excellence @ EDU actually ask that kind of question directly?

  11. Peter, one had to compare apples to apples. Education graduates starting salaries were $4,000 in Fairfax and other top paying localities in 1961 > in rural Virginia starting salaries for new teacher education graduates was around $3,000 per year. So today teacher are getting about 10 times what they earned in 1961. So let’s make it apples to apples not apples to turnips.

    • If you really want to understand the “explosion” in all executive salaries, there’s been a change in philosophy.

      This applies to all sectors: private, public, nonprofit, education, etc.

      In the mid to late 70s/early 80s, your “worth” as an executive became tied to the size of the enterprise. Direct reports and the size of your organization’s budget started to dictate your compensation.

      What is the size of U.Va.’s overall budget compared to 1961?

      • You have put your finger on one of the major problems. After a certain point budgets have nothing to do with educating students. After a certain point beyond this first point of irrelevance, the greater the budget, the less competent the institution becomes in educating students, because its mission now conflicts with or unduly completes with educating students.

        Right now UVa. does not consider educating Virginia students to be the driver of its mission. Indeed, it believes that its obligation to educate Va. students directly interferes with its primary mission which its deems to be becoming a world class, internationally recognized leader in research of and consulting on solving world problems.

        Virginia’s kids are thus left in the dust by this New Global Corporation model.

        • But I’d also submit that after a certain point, being the chief executive officer of a private corporation has nothing to do with the corporation’s annual revenues and expenses. The private sector also has the same “institutionalization” issue, and it has decided to ignore that issue in favor direct reports and budgets dictating executive comp.

          It is also worth noting that Sullivan and Rao are both responsible for the U.Va. and VCU medical centers as part of their portfolios. If you want to have an honest conversation about compensation at universities, I don’t think there’s any real comparison b/w the U.Va. and VCU portfolios and other universities. U.Va. and VCU Presidents should be paid much more than the other universities. Last time I checked, the execs at private and nonprofit hospitals were earning quite a lot….

  12. I have suggested very briefly how elite institutions of higher learning are by intentional design failing their students. Now I suggest that the current system is forcing ever more non elite institutions to fail their students as well, but for very different reasons that are often external to their intentions.

    US college enrollments have increased by one third since year 2000 after such enrollments doubled between 1960 and 2000. Today more than 70% of those graduating from high school enroll in schools of higher education.

    Some 10% of these institutions have selective admission policies. Perhaps 20% of these selective institutions are deemed elite. The other 90% of these colleges and universities will admit anyone who can pay the tuition. Federal student loan policies instituted since 2000 now assures that most anyone graduating from high school can obtain a loan or grant to pay for admission to such non selective schools. Less than half of these students who attend these non selective schools graduate from college despite the fact that many non-graduates spend years and thousands of dollars attending these colleges. Meanwhile most of those who do graduate pay five or more years of tuition to gain a diploma. Well respected studies have shown the some 36% of these “graduating” students show little or no evidence of learning anything in college that could reasonable be considered a college education, and far too often this includes no improvement in basic reading and writing skills, much less learning derived from reading and writing in college.

    Why this dismal state of affair? The basic reasons here for such gross failure are well known, but rarely admitted too, much less discussed.

    For example:

    1. Half of today’s high school graduates DO NOT have a high school education. Many stopped learning in the 6th grade. Most of these never learned to write and read sufficiently to learn after the 6th grade. The rest of these under performing high school graduates never gained the reading and writing skills and learning and study habits necessary for them to have any reasonable chance of success at learning at college, much less earning a good and worthwhile college education.

    Yet these students are accepted into college and “sold” the illusion of a college education under a system that assures their admission and payment of their tuition year after year so long as they are willing to attend if only for the reason that their tuition payments have become critical components that under-gird the continued financial health of our non-selective college system.

    In short, these colleges cannot afford to fail their students, and most institutions must compete fiercely to keep enrolling non qualified kids who through no fault of their own are not prepared for college, and who are thus far too often doomed to fail while wasting their financial health and the prime time in their lives to learn the critical skill sets they need to succeed as productive citizens.

    Meanwhile, to keep this horrible unfair and wasteful system going these kids receive grossly inflated grades to mask their failure learn. Indeed far too much testing and learning now does not include either reading or writing. And far to many kids think they are getting educated when they are not. This proves to be as debilitating to teachers as to students.

    The remarkable thing is that great teachers still succeed under this system as do those students who succeed in it.

      • If we also have institutions like LIberty – would you say that they are different than the public universities and thus an alternative to those who want a better education model to support?

        why are the private institutions not good competition on this as well as the other operating characteristics of public higher ed?

        I’m all for the competition and I’m all for the retirement of college models that are rejected by customers and the public.

        why are all the things that Reed says -not things that competition can bring forth a better model?

  13. Pingback: Virginia Higher Ed Faces Legislative Backlash - Partners

  14. Many states have under taken reforms but not Virginia. For example, Florida and California along with a dozen other states have or are going t o have 4 year occupational degrees offered by community colleges. The degrees focus on economically viable opportunities and the students do not have to leave home to earn the employment focused degrees and they do not have to pay huge athletic fees to support entertainment.
    Tennessee just made community colleges tuition free and they have a “Promise Scholarship” program where every in state student gets a grant that they can take to an instate college or university public or private of about $5,000 per year. And Tennessee, like Florida and others, has no income tax.
    I would think that free tuition community colleges and student grants to attend public or private four year in with no direct appropriations to the four year colleges would place market forces to work.
    Nit picking will not work in a time of a real economic paradigm shift.

  15. I was hired to teach at the University of Delaware in 1965. In 1970, the administration changed, claimed all were excellent teachers, and insisted that the publications did the differentiating. Although tenured, I quit in 1975 because I was short-changing the students in favor of not-very-good research. The research I did in support of designing spacecraft was more significant than my university research.
    People who do intensive research do not necessarily have an interest or ability to teach. The community colleges are better for teaching. We need four-year community colleges.
    The government need not cap tuition. The government should stop funding the state schools and let them compete with the private schools. That would improve education and lower costs.

  16. For those interested, I taught in the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. I stopped designing spacecraft at age 78.

  17. Rather than setting an enrollment cap on out-of-state students, why don’t VA public universities raise the out-of-state tuitions higher to stave off the economic demand? That would put downward pressure on demand from out-of-state students while further subsidizing the cost of in-state tuition; causing demand for in-state students to to increase while increasing supply ofor slots. This appears to be simple economics 101. VA should see theach demand from out-od-state as a blessing and further capitalize on it.

  18. In 1990 most college courses were taught by full time faculty. Now more than half are taught by part time faculty . Full time faculty on average make close to six figures while adjust make about $3000 pper course.
    See this report from PBS or go to Forbes for more information.
    So the cost of teaching each course on average has dropped dramatically in 25 + years. At the same time administrative salaries have jumped 20% + per year. And the cost of athletics and other entertainment has really soared.
    http://www.pbs.org/newshour/making-sense/when-a-college-contracts-adjunctivitis-its-the-students-who-lose/

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