How do Virginia’s public higher-ed institutions rate on the goals established in the 2005 Restructuring Act and embedded in state code? The data is incomplete.
This is the fourth of four articles exploring higher-education accountability in Virginia since enactment of the 2005 “Restructuring Higher Education Financial and Administrative Services Act.”
The 2005 Restructuring Act created a new covenant between the Commonwealth of Virginia and its system of higher education. In exchange for greater freedom from state regulation, colleges and universities would be held accountable for achieving 12 core state goals. Those goals are still part of the state code. But over the intervening years, priorities have changed and many benchmarks have been dropped. The state publishes no comprehensive report card for individual institutions based on achievement of those goals.
Yet the State Council for Higher Education in Virginia (SCHEV) does compile much of the data needed to track progress in achieving the state goals. The numbers can be extracted from a searchable database the council maintains on its website.
In the concluding chapter of this series, Bacon’s Rebellion extracts that information to see how Virginia’s higher-ed system has performed since 2005. The task of extracting the data for each of the state’s public institutions would be too arduous to undertake within a reasonable time frame, so we show data for the system as a whole.
Goal 1: Ensure Access to higher education, including meeting enrollment demand.
Virginia’s system of higher education has expanded significantly since enactment of the 2005 Restructuring Act to accommodate a growing student population. Between 2005 and 2016, total enrollment at public, four-year institutions increased 11%. However, almost all of the increase took place by 2011. Enrollment has leveled off since.
Are Virginia’s public colleges and universities keeping up with demand for higher education? That’s impossible to say. SCHEV has not defined enrollment demand or set any benchmarks.
A related metric is the number of degrees awarded. A stated goal of higher education policy is not simply to increase enrollment, it is to increase the number of Virginians graduating with degrees. Indeed, the 2011 Top Jobs Act, which amended the 2005 Restructuring Act, set an explicit goal of increasing the cumulative number of two-year and four-year degrees awarded by public colleges by 100,000 over 15 years. To award more degrees, colleges must enroll more students and/or increase the retention rate.
As with enrollment, the number of degrees granted each year increased at a robust pace from 2005 to 2011 — and then plateaued. Ironically, that tapering off coincided with the Top Jobs legislation, which was enacted with the goal of boosting enrollment. It is not clear why enrollments have plateaued. One possible explanation is that students signed up during the depths of the recession because so few jobs were available; once economic recovery took root, students returned to the job market. Another is that students began balking at the rising cost of attendance.
The Top Jobs Act put special emphasis on awarding more STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) and health degrees. SCHEV data indicates that the higher-ed system boosted the output of STEM-H degrees by 11.1% between the 2011-12 and 2015-16 school years — double the 5.3% increase for all degrees. STEM degree awards are on an upward trajectory.
Goal 2: Assure affordability, regardless of income.
As discussed in Part III, SCHEV did not develop an overall affordability metric for individual institutions. However, its annual Tuition & Fees report does provide a measure for the higher-ed system as a whole: average undergraduate charges (tuition, fees, room, board) as a percentage of per capita disposable income. After bottoming out at 31.8% in 1999-2000, charges rapidly outpaced Virginia earnings. By the 2016-17 school year, a year’s charges consumed 47.6% of per capita income. Continue reading